Tuesday, 19 January 2021

The 5th Century in Britannia; Part 4. Uthyr, the Scots-Irish and the Battle of Deols.

As before,this is my interpretation as a wargamer, of events in this era.The numbers of troops involved are purely my own calculation. This is a long blog, mainly because there is a great deal going on. To leave anything out would disjoint the story.

In the story of the fifth century in Britannia,  events happened, but, because of the  lack of written testimony there is no accuracy in some the descriptions.   Therefore all of the battles written about in this blog are my " best  guess". 

 462AD found Octa and Ebissa and 900 of their battered and exhausted warriors taking refuge within the remains of Eboricum (York). After the battle of Conisborough, the Germanic warriors had been harassed by the Amorican cavalry during the retreat.That 700 Cavalry now took up position around the perimeter of the almost deserted town. Six days later Ambrosius arrives with 4000 infantryman. 

Realising the position they were in, the tribesmen petitioned Octa to ask for clemency from Ambrosius.This was granted. The warriors are  sent North to Tremontium as Foederati. The year ends with Ambrosius organising Garrisons north and south of Hadrians Wall. 

Einon Ap Cunnedda ( pro; Cunetha) is promoted to Dux Britannarium. He is given charge of Northern Britannia including Gwynedd. His famous father Cunedda Wledig ( Cunetha Wuledig) has previously been killed fighting Scots-Irish raiders. Ambrosius also visits Alclud (Dumbarton castle) which is at the western end of  what was the Antonine Wall.  He supplies the fortress and leaves a garrison of 500 men, 200 of which are cavalry. Five weeks later he is back at Caerleon.

There is a reason for the garrison at Dumbarton. The Del Riata or Scots-Irish have three major settlements on the west coast of Caledonia. Dunolli ( near Oban, mid Argyll ). Dunadd, the main settlement, near Kilmartin in mid Argyll. The third is Dunaverty , at the southern end of the Mull of Kintyre. Many of the Scots-Irish raids into Britannia started from these points.

Over the winter Ambrosius and Uthyr decide to strike back at the Scots-Irish homeland. Ambrosius knows that the Britons would not be enthusiastic about going to Hibernia. Therefore he asks Merlin to concoct a story. The army led by Uthyr is to travel to Dal Fiatach in Hibernia to recover some large stones with special magical properties.

 Really it is to attack the holdings of the young High King Gillomarius ( Lugaid Mac Loegairi ) and his father Loegaire. 
Ambrosius orders ships to be built at Caerleon and Menevia ( Cardiff ).

 In the Spring of 463AD, Uthyr takes 2000 Amorican regular infantry and 2000 Briton Militia infantry in 50 ships from Caerleon. When Uthyrs army arrives at Latharna, Gillomarius gathers 6000 warriors to oppose the landing.

Battle of  Coill Taobh.( fictional name).

Scots-Irish ; 6,000 ( 6 points x 6 = 36 points).
1 Chief ( Gillomarius ) @ 1 point.
3 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 3 points.
12 stands of Warriors @ 2 points = 24 points.
4  stands of chariots @ 2 points = 8 points.

The Briton Army. 4,000 ( 4 points x 6 = 24 points.)

Uthyr @ 2 points.
4 Stands of Auxilliary Infantry @ 2 points = 8 points.
2 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 2 points
Alfric (fictional character) @ 1 point.
5 stands of Militia Infantry @ 2 points = 10 points.
1 stand of Light Archers @ 1 point.

● The Briton army gets the Iniative Point every Game-Turn.
●The Briton army moves first every Game-Turn.
● The Briton army fires first every Game-Turn.
● Combat is simultaneous as described in the 2 player rules.
● The battle takes place over 8 Game-Turns.

 After a hard fought battle, Uthyrs army wins out, causing the Scots-Irish to retreat and fragment in the process. Ignoring the fortress of Knockdhu, Uthyrs army marches north, raiding as they go.

 Picking up some monolithic stones,Uthyrs army makes its way back to the ships. The Scots-Irish tribes are unable to unite against a common enemy. In sailing back to Carleon, Uthyr brings another 10 ships taken from the Scots-Irish. 

The result of this major incursion reduces the number of raids on the west coast of Britannia. However, small bands of Saxons, Angles, Jutes, Visigoths, Vandals and Picts are still raiding the south and east coast.

In Gaul in Soissons, The Visigoths make another attempt to invade the province. At the battle of Orleans, Childeric and Aegidius defeat the Visigoths led by Theodoric. In Hispania, The Visigoths are also skirmishing with the Suebians.

 464AD;  Pascent, Vortigerns surviving son appears at Dunadd in western Caledonia and eventually meets up with Octa and Ebissa.

 With their combined warbands they start raiding Briton settlements north of Hadrians Wall. Ambrosius with 600 cavalry and Einon with 1200 Infantry militia march from Deva to find Pascents army of 1500 Germanic and Scots-Irish warriors.

 Once again it is Ambrosius,s cavalry which tips the balance.In a series of skirmishes Pascents warband army is forced back to Dunolli. From there, the Warband Army takes ship to Hibernia, being welcomed by Gillomarius. 

 The late summer of 464AD finds Pascent with another raiding force of 800 Scots-Irish, Saxons, Angles and Jutes. This time it was a direct attack on Caerleon. The fleet sails up the Severn estuary and lands near Menevia ( Cardiff ). They launch their attack but Uthyr has 700 men to oppose them (500 regulars and 200 militia).

The two forces meet at Croes Carn Einon. ( The battle is fictional but the place is real ).

The forces involved;

Germano-Scots-Irish Warband; 800 = 8 points x 3 = 24 points.

Pascent   @ 1 point.
5 stands of Warriors @ 2 points = 10 points.
1 stand of Light Archers @ 1 point.

Logaire @ 1 point.
5 stands of Scots-Irish Warriors @ 2 points = 10 points.
1 stand of Light Archers @ 1 point.

The Briton-Amorican Army; 700 = 7 points x 3 = 21 points.

Uthyr @ 2 points.
6 stands of Auxilliary Infantry @ 2 points = 12 points.
1 stand of Light Archers @ 1 point.

Atgan (fictional) @ 2 points.
1 stand of Militia Infantry @ 1 point.
3 stands of Militia Light Archers @ 1 point = 3 points.

● The Britons get the Initiative Point for the entire battle.
● The Britons get to move first each Game Turn.
● The Britons get to fire first each Game Turn.

● Stands that fight or fire within the Ford of the river do not suffer penalties.
Any stand that is within any other part of the river when firing or fighting does suffer penalties.

● The battle is fought over 8 Game-Turns.

Uthyr and his men win the battle and once again Pascent and his mixed war band are driven back to their ships. Loegaire was leading the Scots -Irish but he looses his life in this battle. Pascent sails back to Hibernia taking the lifeless Loegaire with him.

On the Continent, Anthemius is made Emperor of the West by Leo ( Emperor of the East ). Anthemius has a Senior General, Ricimer and two others, Majorian and Aegidius. Majorian wages successful campaigns against the Germanic tribes. Fearing Majorians success, Ricimer has him assassinated.

Aegidius launches several campaigns against the Visigothic ( Roman Foederatii) army led by Theodric but controlled by Ricimer. Theodoric the leader of the Visigoths is related to Ricimer.

( note; Ricimer is a senior Patrician in Rome. He cannot become Emperor himself because he is Aryan Christian. However he controls Anthemius ).

Aegidius died suddenly in 465AD. Some say Ricimer was responsible. In this year Syagrius, the son of Aegidius takes over in Soissons, the last Roman Province of the Western Empire in Gaul.

Syagrius is allied to Childeric, the King of the Franks  in the north of Gaul. To the south of Soissons there is the Visigoths, now led by Euric,who has murdered his elder brother Theodoric. Euric is also a nephew of Ricimer.

 There are also the Vandals ( by now, on the west coast of Hispania) led by Geiseric. Groups of Saxons are now in Normandy as they are gradually being pushed out of their original territory by the Franks.

465AD. Pascent sends Octa and Ebissa on another raid; 500 German tribesmen and 500 Scots-Irish. They head along the river Ribble and attack Bremetennacium ( Ribchester). Next, they head south in a lightning strike on Mamucium ( Manchester ). 

Learning of the attack while at Deva, Ambrosius, Gorlois and Einon gather a scratch force of 300 regular Cavalry, 300 regular infantry and 500 militia infantry and head to Mamucium.

Realising that he had missed the enemy. Ambrosius leaves Einon and the Cavalry at Manucium while he and Gorlois head south with the infantry. Ambrosius,s force caught up with Octa and Ebissa,s Warband at Aquaeanemetiae ( Buxton). During this battle Ambrosius,s infantry are pushed back and surrounded at Mount Damen ( said to be Ramshaw Rocks on the A53 ).

Overnight, Ambrosius and Gorlois decide on a dawn  attack with swords drawn. Covered by an early morning mist Ambrosius, Gorlois and the men attack. Added to this was the arrival of Einon with the cavalry. This time it is an overwhelming victory. The war band was completely broken.

Octa  @ 1 point.
Ebissa @ 1 point.
500 Germanic warriors = 5 points x 4 = 20 points = 8 stands of Warriors @ 2 points =16 points. 
2 stands of Light Infantry Skirmishers @ 1 point = 2 points.

500 Scots-Irish = 5 points x 4 = 20 points = 9 stands of Warriors @ 2 points = 18 points.
 2 stands of Light Skirmisher Archers. @ 1 point = 2 points. 

Ambrosius @ 2 points.
Gorlois @ 2 points.
9 stands of Militia Infantry @ 2 points = 18 points.
5 stands of Auxilliary  Infantry @  2 points =10 points.

Einon @ 2 points.
5 stands of Auxilliary Cavalry ( javelins) @ 2 points = 10 points.

The Fog;
●At the beginning of each Game-Turn the Britons are moved first. 

●The only stands that can fire during the entire game are the Archers and the Cavalry. These stands can only commence firing when there is no Fog marker between them and their target.

●When a Briton stand is moved into the square containing a " Fog marker" that fog marker is removed and a combat takes place. 

●The fog marker is not replaced once it is removed.

●No Germanic or Scots-Irish stands can be moved until the Fog marker is removed from in front of the stand or, the stand is Moved Back as a result of Combat.

The Briton Cavalry;
●These are placed in the wood at the bottom left of the battlefield.
●At the beginning of Game-Turn 3 and for every Game-Turn thereafter the Briton Player rolls a 6 sided die. On the score of 5 or 6 the cavalry are moved  on to the table where the road is ( bottom right of the battle map ).
● Once the cavalry are on the table, they can be moved along with the Briton Infantry.
Note; The Briton cavalry cannot be fired upon or engaged in close combat until they appear on the road.

● The battle is played for 8 Game-Turns.

Octa and Ebissa were captured. There was no mercy. Having already taken their oath Ambrosius is in no mood for clemency. Both Octa and Ebissa are put to death.

466AD. Easter at Carleon. Ambrosius gathers his Officers and Nobles to celebrate the Festival. It is here that Gorlois discovers Uthyrs affair with his Wife Ygerna. Gorlois leaves the Festival vowing no further support for the Amoricans in Dumnonia. Ambrosius has no choice in supporting his brother and declaring Golois  a renegade.

Note; This could have been an arranged confrontation. Golois was a redoubtable and brave leader who was popular with his warriors and the Dumnonians looked to him rather than Ambrosius.

Ambrosius sends Uthyr into Dumnonia to attack Gorlois,s holdings. Eventually, during a sally from Damelioc hill fort Gorlois is killed. Uthyr takes Ygerna as his Wife. Ygerna has a two year old son  by Golois named Medreut ( Mordred).

467AD.  In the early part of this year Ygerna gives birth to a boy who is given the name  Artorius ( Arthwys Ap Uthyr Ap Constantine :( Ap meaning " son of" ) or Arthur. In September a girl,Anna. 

There are still raids across eastern Britannia but no major incursions. Londinium is all but abandoned as are a number of major posts in the north, east and south east.

468AD. Ambrosius has political connections with the Patrician Syagrius, and Childeric, King of the Franks  He also has contact with King Rechimund ( Riothamus ? ) of the Suebians on the North-western corner of Hispania in an area called Gallaecia. 

( In this year at the battle of Mecurium, the Vandals destroy a huge Roman invasion fleet off the coast of Africa. This battle is said to be the death-knell of the Roman Empire in the West.)

This is because there is a Briton colony there called Bretona. Riothamus is pro-Roman and has allowed groups of Briton refugees to settle in Gallaecia. The Suebians are enemies of the Visigoths. Now possessing a Navy, Ambrosius can keep in contact with the Gallaecian colony.

469AD. In this year Ambrosius receives a request from Syagrius as does Riothamus for troops to fight the Visigoths. Syagrius carries the remit of the Eastern Emperor, therefore the order must be acted on.

Ambrosius leaves Uthyr 4,800 regulars including 300 cavalry to hold Britannia, while he takes 4,000 regulars and 500 cavalry in sixty ships. Riothamus has 8,200 infantry warriors (including 2000 Britons )in 90 ships. These two fleets  carrying 12,700 soldiers and warriors make their way to the Loire  river, and then down the river Cher to Bourges.

In July, Riothamus and Ambrosius, following the River Indre on their right, move forward on foot to Deols, south of Bourges. Here they camp to wait the arrival of Syagrius.

 However, Syagrius was betrayed by Arvandas, who informed Euric of the impending attack. Euric attacked the position of Riothamus  and Ambrosius before Syagrius had arrived.

The Gallacio-Briton army; 12,700 = 12.7 points x 4 = 51 points r/u.

The Britons and Amoricans; 4,500 = 4.5 points x 4 = 18 points.

Ambrosius ( inc bodyguard )  @ 3 points.
1 stand of Auxilliary Light Cavalry  @  2 points.
5 stands of Auxilliary Infantry  @ 2 points = 10 points.
3 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 3 points.

The Gallaecians; 8,200 = 8.2 points x 4 = 33 points r/u.

Riothamus ( inc bodyguard )  @ 2 points.
3 stands of Light Archers / slings  @  1 point = 3 points.
14 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 28 points.

The Army of Syagrius ( not present but included for completeness ) ; 
8,000 infantry = 8 points  x 4 = 32 points,
2,000 cavalry = 2 points x4 = 8 points.

Syagrius @ 1 point.
4 stands of Light Cavalry ( javelin ) @ 2 points = 8 points.
7 stands of Regular Infantry = 3 points = 21 points.
3 stands of Auxilliary Infantry @ 2 points = 6 points.
4 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 4 points.

The Visigoth Army; 18,000 = 18 points x 4 = 72 points.

Euric  @ 1 point.
Ardo (fictional)  @ 1 point.
Genderic ( fictional)  @ 1 point.

5 stands of Cavalry @ 2 points = 10 points
5 stands of Light Archers @ 1point = 5 points.
27 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 54 points.


● This battle is played out as a normal two player game. At the start of each Game-Turn both sides throw a 12 sided die to determine which side gets the Initiative point for that Game-Turn.

● The battle is played out over 8 Game-Turns.

● Stands can only be moved in and out of the camp via the gate. Any stands within the camp can claim cover.

Note: It has been written that Arvandas, (a Praetorian Prefect ) under instruction from Syagrius, informed Euric of the impending attack hoping to wipe out Ambrosius and Riothamus and dismantle the  independant British Province.

 Ambrosius and Riothamus were forced to retreat back to Bourges with the remainder of their warriors  where the ships are moored. They had to reach open water before the Visigoths closed off the Loire.

Syagrius retreated back across the Loire at Orlean. Ambrosius and Riothamus return to their Provinces with their respective troops. Ambrosius now knows that the Roman hierarchy riven with political intrigue, cannot be trusted.

470AD,  Ambrosius returns to devastation. The army is down to 4,000 men commanded by Lott which has retreated to Silchester. The Picts led by Nechtan are raiding Northern Britain in strength. Pascent and the Scots- Irish are attacking the west coast. Dumnonia is in a Civil War between the supporters of Gorlais and the supporters of Uthyr, who has been killed by assassination.

Ambrosius contacts Lott to bring the army to Tintagel. Einon is to garrison all the forts along the frontier from north to south. He then rides with Cador, the new Dux of Dumnonia to Damelioc. 
Ambrosius threatens to put everyone in the fort to death if the leaders of the rebellion are not handed to him. The leaders are surrendered and put to death, whereupon the rest of the rebel Dumnonians swear allegiance.

Over the winter and into 471AD, Ambrosius with the help of his few senior officers trains up his army recruiting from amongst the young Britons. Eventually the army comes together at Carleon. The Army;

3,000 Regulars ( 2,500 infantry, 500 Cavalry in 6 Cohorts)

Cador, the Dux of Dumnonia ; ( 3,000 Infantry Militia, 500 Cavalry in 7 Cohorts.)

Einon of Gwynedd ; ( 5,000 Infantry Militia, 400 Cavalry.)

As Spring comes along Ambrosius finds out that a 500 strong warband of Germanic warriors mainly Saxons, have set up a settlement at Eboricum,( York) with new leaders, Colgrin and his Brother Baldulf. In May, the Briton army is assembled at Deva.

 Ambrosius has 2,000 regular Infantry and 500 regular cavalry. Cador brings in 1,500 infantry militia and 500 militia cavalry. He leaves 500 regular infantry to guard Carleon where Ygerna is living with the children. 

Einon,s troops are given the task of garrisoning the border.

Merlin the Sage is also there. Being part Druid his presence is resented by the Clergy but he is part of the Bucellarii of Ambrosius.

Ambrosius marches the army to Eboricum to confront the raiders. At first it was going to be another siege, because the Germanic tribesmen had cut trees to form a defensive perimeter.

 However,this time things were different! Word had come that a large fleet has anchored in the Humber estuary near Petuaria ( Brough). This army has 150 ships carrying 10/12,000 men, mostly Saxon led by a Chief called Cheldric.

This is a full scale invasion. Ambrosius is forced to retreat to Deva and back to Carleon. He needs food and troops. He sends a request to Hoel, High King of Amorica. The King arrives at Totnes three months later  with 8,000 men including 1,000 cavalry.

472AD; Ambrosius and Hoel set the army in motion toward Lindum. British scouts have located the main Saxon army in this area although there have been sporadic raids in the south-east. The British-Amorican army ;

Ambrosius ; 1,500 regulars = 1.5 points x 4 = 6 points.
1,500 Infantry Militia = 1.5 points x 4 = 6 points.
500 Regular Cavalry in 1 cohort. = 0.5 points x 4 = 2 points.
500 Militia Cavalry in 1 cohort. = 0.5 points x 4 = 2 points.

King Hoel; 7,000 Regular Infantry = 7 points x 4 = 28 points.
1,000 Regular Cavalry = 1 point x 4 = 4 points.

Ambrosius @ 3points.
1 stand of Regular infantry @ 3 points.
1 stand of Regular Cavalry @ 2 points.
2 stands of Militia infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.
1 stand of Militia Cavalry @  2 points.
2 stands of Light archers at 1 point = 2 points.

King Hoel @ 1 point.
8 stands of Regular Infantry @ 3 points = 24 points.
3 stands of Archers @ 1 point = 3 points.
2 stands of Regular Cavalry ( javelin ) @ 2points = 4 points.

Nechtan and his Picts; 4,000 = 4 points x 4 = 16 points.

Nechtan @ 1 point.
9 stands of Light-Armed Warriors @ 1 point = 9 points.
4 stands of light Archers @ 1 point = 4 points.
1 stand of Light Cavalry @ 2 points.

The Saxon Army; 10,000 = 10 points x 4 = 40 points.

Cheldric @ 1 point.
Colgrin @ 1 point.
Bardulf @ 1 point.
18 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points =36 points.
1 stand of Light Infantry Archers @ 1 point.


● The Romans retain the Initiative Point for the entire battle.
● The Romans move first on every Game-Turn.
● The Romans fire first during the firing phase.
● The battle is played out over 8 Game-Turns.

Ambrosius sends some of his cavalry in a sweep around the south-east to guard against any warbands coming ashore. The main army marches north past Lindum ( Lincoln ) and comes up on the Saxon army at Locodraco ( modern Dragonby, Yorkshire ).

Composed of 10,000 infantry led by Colgrin, Bardulf and Cheldric, who is the Bretwalda. They have also been joined by 4,000 Picts ( including 500 light cavalry) led by Nechtan.

The battle is hard but a charge by Hoels cavalry at the critical point decides the battle. The 6,000 Saxons retreat back to their ships on the Humber. As the Saxons move south and east out into open sea, Ambrosius and Hoel harass Nechtan and his remaining warriors back to Caledonia.

This time Ambrosius is caught out.  Instead of sailing to Normandy, Cheldric takes his fleet to Totnes!. Isca Dumnoniorum is devastated by the Saxons, who ravage the area eastward toward Lindinis ( Illchester ) where they make camp. For three weeks the Saxons continue to devastate the area. A message is sent  to Ambrosius who, four weeks later appears at Aquaesulis (Bath ).

Ambrosius has had to leave Hoel at Alclud with a garrison of 1,000 men because he is sick. The rest of the army marches with him. 

Cheldric, Colgrin and Bardulf have 8000 warrior infantry. When Cheldrics scouts inform him of the approaching Amoricans he knows he has to retreat to a defensive position because of the Cavalry. Cheldrics fleet has also been anchored at Lym Supra Mare ( Lyme Regis ) to take the baggage that had been looted.

Cheldric has his warriors take up position facing east on Ham Hill( Somerset ),which is  the site of an old hillfort. The ramparts have gone but there is a small village and the shell of a Roman villa.

Ambrosius and Cador along with Einon have 4,000 Amorican regular infantry and 800 cavalry. Ambrosius has 1,000 regular infantry, 900 militia infantry and 400 militia cavalry. 

Briton-Amorican Army.

Ambrosius; 7,100 = 7.1 x 5 = 36 points r/u.

4,000 Amorican Regulars = 4 points x 5 = 20 points =
5 stands of Amorican Regulars @ 3points = 15 points.
2 stands of Light Archers  @ 1 point = 2 points.
Ambrosius  @ 3 points.

800 Amorican Cavalry = 0.8 x 5 = 4 points =
2 stands of Amorican cavalry @ 2 points = 4 points ( javelin ).

1,000 Briton Auxilliary Infantry = 1 x 5 = 5 points =
2 stands of Briton Auxilliary Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.
Cador @  1 point.

900 Briton Militia Infantry = 0.9 points x 5 = 4.5 or 5 points r/u.
1 stand of Militia Infantry @ 2 points.
2 stands of Militia Light Archers @ 1 point = 2 points.
Einon   @ 1 point.

400 Briton Militia Cavalry = 0.4 x 5 = 2 points.=
1 stand of Militia Cavalry  @ 2 points.

Germanic Tribal Army, 8,000 = 8 points x 5 = 40 points.

Cheldric @ 1 point.
Colgrin @ 1 point.
Bardulf @ 1 point.
17 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 34 points.
3 stands of Light Infantry @ 1point = 3 points.

Notes ;
● The Briton- Amorican army retain the Initiative Point for the entire battle.
● The Briton-Amorican army moves first on every Game-Turn.
● The Briton-Amorican army fires first on every Game-Turn.

The ruined villa;
Stands can only be moved in and out of the villa via the East entrance exit. No missile fire can take place from within to targets outside and vice versa.

The battle starts with Ambrosius directing an advance against the Saxon tribesmen. Neither side gains the upper hand. However, Ambrosius knows he has to return to Alclud. 

Ambrosius launches another attack uphill at the Saxon battle line. Ambrosius is in the front rank to encourage his men. This time the Saxons are broken.  Ambrosius leaves Cador to pursue the Saxons back to their ships at Lym Supra Mare. Ambrosius returns to Carleon. From there he takes 3000 Amorican infantry and 800 British regular Infantry along with 600 cavalry in 60 ships and sails to Alclud.

Toward the end of 472AD Ambrosius is back at Alclud when he is informed that a large army of Scots-Irish under Gillomarius and Pascent  has landed at Dunadd. This army is estimated to be of 5000 men,and is marching toward Alclud. Ambrosius realises this is his one chance to break the Scots-Irish threat.

Over a two day running battle, Ambrosius and Hoel with 4,800 regulars and the 600 cavalry beat the Scots-Irish army around Loch Lomond, driving the remainder back to Dunadd. Both Gillomarius and Pascent are killed.

Ambrosius decides to put Caledonia to the fire and sword. He devastates the area up to Loch Ness ending the Pict and Scots-Irish threat to Britannia for a long while to come.

In August of 472, Ricimer passes away.  Into 473 AD, Ambrosius, although Amorican is undisputed Warlord of Britannica. He was 50 years old when he came to the country and he has been fighting for twelve years.
 Artorius Constantine (Arthur ) and his sister Anna are 6 years old. Mordred is 8.

Well that is the end for the moment. All the battles are played out on my board which is 3 feet by 2 feet ( 90 centimetres by 60 centimetres ).

Nearly all the figures in the pictures are Hat Industries 1/72nd scale figures painted by myself. Some are from the Newline Designs range.

The maps are my own efforts. The hills are by Brian of Essex Miniatures. The green and brown ground bases are from S and A Scenics.

The Tents in the Deols scenario are from Bauda, the wagon is from Ceasar Miniatures Roman Train. The earth work is cold modelling clay with bits of cocktail stick.

Finally, the trees are from various manufacturers. The round 40mm Mdf bases are from Minibits, and the square bases are cut from picture-framing cardboard. The fog sections, roads and rivers are of thin card.