Friday, 24 December 2021

Battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky, January 19th 1862.

 This is my own interpretation of the battle as a wargamer. Any mistakes are my own. The numbers given below for each formation is my own best guess. This battle was also titled Logan's Crossroads.

As the war progressed the Union Administration did not want Kentucky going over to the Confederate Government. Having been repulsed at the Wilderness Road, the Confederate General  Felix  Zollicoffer moved further West in another attempt to disrupt Union activity.

In late 1861, a Confederate force of 6,000 men and 16 guns was camped at Mill Springs, on the South bank of the Cumberland River. Zollicoffer realised that if he could establish a camp on the north side of the river, he would be better placed to interdict Union activity between Somerset and Lebanon.

Zollicoffer,s force was also part of the Confederate Defense Line which was to prevent Union forces from interrupting rail shipments of supplies from southern and western Virginia.

Zollicoffer managed to gather up some rivercraft enough to transport 5000 men and 12 guns across the Cumberland to Beech Grove, leaving 1,000 men and 4 guns at Mill Springs. Both camps were entrenched.

Having been told of the Confederate movement, Union General George H. Thomas moved his 4,500 troops to Logan,s Crossroads [ modern day Nancy ]. about 10 miles north of the Confederate position. In the meantime Major General George B. Crittenden arrived to take control of Confederate forces.

Crittenden wanted to attack Thomas,s force before it could link up with Union General Albin F. Schoepes Division to attack the Confederate base.

The early hours of January 19th found the Confederate force from Beech Grove marching north in the rain and fog to suprise and attack Thomas,s Union force.

Unfortunately for the Confederates, the Union 10th Indiana Infantry and 1st Kentucky Cavalry, on piquet duty were wide awake!. as battle was joined, elements of Albin Schoepe,s Union formation were force marching to reinforce Thomas,-----

UNION ARMY; 4,500 = 4.5 X 8 =36 points.

( This total includes The reinforcements from Schoepe commanded by McCook ).

1 General, George H. Thomas.  @ 1 point.

1 General Robert L. McCook @   1 point.

12th New York Line Infantry ( 300 ) = 0.300 x 8 = 2 stands @ 1 point = 2 points. (R/d)

2nd Minnesota Line Infantry (500 ) = 0.500 x 8 = 2 stands @ 2 points = 4 points.

9th Ohio Line Infantry (800 ) = 0.800 x 8 = 2  stands @ 3 points = 6 points.

7th Ohio Line Infantry ( 500 ) = 0.500 x 8 = 2 stands @ 2 points = 4 points.

4th New York Line Infantry (500 ) = 0.500 x 8 = 2 stands @  2 points = 4 points.

2nd Tennessee Line Infantry ( 500) = 0.500 x 8 = 2 stands @ 2 points = 4 points.

7th Tennessee Line Infantry ( 500 ) = 0.500 x 8 = 2 stand @ 2 points = 4 points.

10th Indiana Line Infantry ( 500) = 0.500 x 8 = 4 stands @ 1 point = 4 points.

1st Kentucky Cavalry ( 300 ) = 0.300 x 8 =  2 stands @ 1 point = 2 points.

Whitmores Battery : 8 guns x 30 men = 240 men = 0.240 x 8 = 2pts r/u = 2 stands of Light Artillery @ 1 point = 2points.

CONFEDERATE ARMY; 5,000 = 5pts x 8 = 40 points.

1 General. George B. Crittenden  @ 1 point.

1 General. Felix Zollicoffer  @ 1 point.

15th Mississippi Line Infantry [ 800 ] = 0.800 pts x 8 = 6 pts [r/d]. 3 stands of Line Inf @ 2 pts.

16th Alabama Line Infantry [ 500] = 0.500 x 8 pts = 4 pts. 2 stands of Line Infantry @ 2 pts.

17th Tennessee Line Infantry [ 500] = 0.500 x 8 pts= 4 points. 2 stands of Line Inf @ 2 pts.

19th Tennessee Line Infantry [ 800 ] = 0.800 pts x 8 = 6 points. 3 stands of  Line Inf @ 2 pts.

20th Tennessee Line Infantry [ 500 ] = 0.500 pts x 8 = 4 points. 2 stands of Line Inf @ 2 pts.

25th Tennessee Line Infantry [ 500 ] = 0.500 pts x 8 = 4 points. 2 stands of Line Inf @ 2 pts.

28th Tennessee Line Infantry [ 500 ] = 0.500 pts x 8 = 4 points. 2 stands of Line Inf @ 2 pts.

29th Tennessee Line Infantry [ 500 ] = 0.500 pts x 8 = 4 points. 2 stands of Line Inf @ 2 pts.

Saunders Cavalry Battalion [ 300 ] = 0. 300 pts x 8 = 2 points. 2 stands of Cavalry @ 1 pt.

Bledsoe,s Battery, 12 guns x 30 men = 360 = 0.360 x 8 = 3 points [r/u ] = 1 stand of Heavy Artillery @ 2 points  and 1 stand of Light Artillery @ 1 point.

Here is the map;

The Battle;

* The Union Army has the  Initiative Point for the entire battle.

* The Confederates move first, and fire first on the 1st Game-Turn.

*From Game-Turn 2 until Game-Turn 8, both sides will roll a die to decide who moves and fires first. It also determines which side wins any tied results during the Game-Turn.

Ordered Movement:

This battle was something of a “ meeting” engagement.

For the Confederates, on the First Game-Turn only the 19th and 15th Infantry can move.

On the second Game-Turn, the 17th, 25th, 28, 16th and 20th can move.

On the third Game-Turn, Saunders Cavalry, the Field Guns and the 29th can move.

The Confederate army was strung out on the road which was muddy and it took time for the units to come into action.

Any stands entering the river section cannot fire.

The Generals:


It has been written that Crittenden wasn’t quite himself at this battle and didn’t have a clear idea of what was happening. Therefore. If a player wishes to move Crittenden, a 6 sided die is rolled. On a roll of a 5 or 6, Crittenden can be moved.


During the battle, Zollicoffer was in the front line. In the bad light he confused a Senior Union Officer as one of his own. As Zollicoffer rode off, another Union Officer saw what was happening and shot General Zollicoffer as he was riding away. Therefore, if Zollicoffer comes within range of a Union stand roll a 6 sided die. If a 5 or 6 is rolled, Zollicoffer is removed.


The Union Army cannot move until the 10th Indiana and 1st Kentucky retreat to the snake fence.

The 7th and 9th Ohio with General McCook cannot move until Game-Turn 4. These Regiments were of German Immigrants who were veterans of the wars in Europe.

The Weather;

The weather on the morning of the battle was foggy with rain. This had an adverse effect on the weapons especially amongst the Confederate Infantry.  A number of them had old flintlock smoothbore rifles which some of the men were seen smashing against trees in their frustration.

Therefore, 2 points will be deducted from every firing die rolled in the game. this will result in more combats than usual.

FIRING RANGE; All rifle fire will be at two squares range. Field Gun range is four squares.

The hedgerow or"scrub" and the snakefencing do not provide any cover and only hinder movement to artillery and cavalry.

As before in previous scenarios, I don’t know if there was any true horse artillery so all artillery is moved at two squares.


The figures are a mixture of Peter Pig and Miniature Figurines. The flags are from Peter Pig.

The hills are made from garden kneeling mats from Wilkinsons. The trees are from various manufacturers, one being Guagemaster.

The wood outline bases are from S and A Scenics , some from picture framing cardboard. The river and road sections are from thin cardboard.

The square figure stands are cut from picture framing cardboard. The round 40mm mdf bases are from Minibits.

The snake fencing and hedgerow [ 6mm woodland ? ] is from Northumberland Painting Service and MBM Scenery.

The tentline hidden in the top left of the board is from Peter Pig.

As before, the board is 3 feet x 2 feet, [ 90cm x 60cm ].

Monday, 6 December 2021

Battle of Dettingen; 27th June 1743.

This is my own interpretation of events. Any mistakes are my own.

As part of the Pragmatic agreement the British Government sent troops to Europe to aid the Empress of Austria in her fight against Prussia. This was also in response to French intervention on behalf of Bavaria. The French were supporting  Charles the 7th of Bavaria as the elected leader of the Holy Roman Empire in opposition to Austria.

The King of Britain, George the 2nd was also the Duke of Hanover.  As much as he wanted to be seen as a staunch ally of Austria, the action was perceived by some to be a move to protect Hanover from any French takeover. This rumour was further strengthened when the Pragmatic Army stayed on the northeastern bank of the Main.

[ George was also known as an "Elector". These were a group of Princes within the Empire who formed a Council to elect the Holy Roman Emperor ].

As stated before, the British troops were auxiliary to the Hanovarian army as were the Hessians. The other main component were the troops from the Austrian Netherlands ( modern Belgium ), commanded by the Duke of Aremberg.

June of 1743 found the Pragmatic army camped at Aschaffenberg enroute to Bavaria. While there the information came that the French had retired from Bavaria, having lost the campaign against the invading Austrians.

In order to save his kingdom , the Emperor Charles 7th ( who was also the Wittalsbach Duke of Bavaria ), made peace with the Austrians thereby negating the reason for the the Pragmatic army to be there!.

[ Very soon after this Charles 7th expired. His son Maximillian 3rd Joseph succeeded him. By 1745 Bavaria was in ruins. To gain peace with Austria, Joseph acceded to Hapsburg Austria,s right to rule the Holy Roman Empire, an entity in name only ].

The Allied army had further problems. Supplies coming down the river Main from the Netherlands had been cut off by French Forces. The senior commanders also had to wait on the deliberations of George the 2nd.  The King expressed the wish to lead the army in person.

This created further headaches for the commander's who were in charge of an army that was starving, and suffering from a breakdown in discipline. By the time the King arrived from Hanover, the army was in a bad way. In Council the decision was made to march north,through Dettingen to Hanau and back to the Netherlands.

The French Marshal , the Duc De Noailles, watching these events, conceived a plan to take advantage of the dire situation in which the allies found themselves. Realising that the Allies were heading toward Dettingen, the Duke laid his trap. 

To the south of Dettingen was a boggy ravine behind which Noailles positioned 21,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry commanded by the Duke De Gramont assisted by the Count De Harcourt.

On the west side of the river Main the Marshal positioned his artillery to fire into the left flank of the enemy army as it advanced toward the ravine. After the Allied army had marched from Aschaffenburg, the Duke sent another 12,000 men into the town behind the Allies. With the Spessart hills to the East, the. Allied  Army was effectively trapped.

Well, that was the plan which, had it been enacted would have been the end of the Allied Army and the humiliating capture of a King!

In a moment of madness, all the careful planning was undone. For reasons only known to the Duc De Gramont, this same gentleman suddenly left his advantageous position behind the boggy ravine and led the army across the only bridge onto the plain.

To the Duke De Noailles horror the cavalry then charged the left of the Allied army——-———.

Here are the armies laid out for battle,

THE PRAGMATIC ARMY; 38,200 + 98 guns.

[ 98 x 30 men for each gun = 2940 men. 2.940 pts x 2 = 5.880 or 6 points in guns].


3,600 Line Infantry = 3.600 x 2= 7 points r/d.
1,600 Cavalry = 1.600 x 2= 3 points r/d.

1 C-in-C King George 2nd @ 1 point.
1 General, John Dalrymple, Lord Stair @ 1 point.
3 stands of Line Infantry @ 2 points = 6 points.
2 stands of Dragoon Cavalry @ 1 point = 2 points.
2 stands of Light Artillery @ 1 point = 2 points.

[ note; The British Guards and Grenadiers were sent back toward Aschaffenburg to act as a rearguard which did not go down well with the troops!].


10,000 Line Infantry = 10 points x 2 =20 points.
2,000 Cavalry = 2 points x 2 = 4 points.

1 General, Ilton @ 1 point.
1 stand of Grenadier Infantry @ 4 points.
5 stands of Line Infantry @ 3 points = 15 points.
2 stands of Dragoon Cavalry @ 2 points = 4 points.
1 stand of Heavy Artillery @ 2 points.


4,200 Line Infantry = 4.200 points x 2 = 8 pts r/d.
800 Dragoon Cavalry = 0.800 points x 2 = 2 pts r/u.

1 stand of Grenadier Infanty = 4 points.
2 stands of Line Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.
1 stand of Dragoon Cavalry @ 2 points.


14,000 Infantry = 14 points x 2 = 28 points.
2,000 Cavalry = 2 points x 2 = 4 points.

1 General, Leopold Phillipe D,Aremberg @ 1 point.
2 stands of Grenadier Infantry @ 4 pts = 8 points.
6 stands of Line Infantry @ 3 points = 18 points.
2 stands of Dragoon Cavalry  @ 2 pts = 4 points.
1 stand of Hussar Light Cavalry @ 1 point.
1 stand of  Heavy Artillery @ 2 points.


21,000 Infantry = 21 points x 2 = 42 points.
12,000 Cavalry = 12 points x 2 = 24 points.
54 guns  [ 54 x 30 = 1620 = 1.620 x 2 = 3.240 = 3pts r/d.

1 General and C-in-C Louis de Noailles @ 1point.
1 Louis de Gramont the 6th. @ 1 point.
1 General Louis de Lorraine Count of Harcourt @ 1 point.

1 stand of Grenadier Infantry @ 4 points.
11 stands of Line Infantry @ 3 points = 33 points.
2 stands of Light Infantry @ 1 point = 2 points.
8 stands of Cavalry @ 3 points =24 points.
3 stands of Light Artillery @ 1 point = 3 points.

Historical Notes;

I have read various accounts of this battle and in each, the numbers are different. The British troops were numbered as 16,000. Looking at the list of regiments, I can only tally approximately 6,000.

The Hanovarian army were dressed in uniforms practically the same as the British, with red being the main colour so I wondered if the  Hanovarian troops were thought of as British?

I had a similar problem with the French. I dont know wether the 12,000 that the Duke sent toward Aschaffenburg were part of the main army or were additional.

So, the figures I have given above are conjectural, but it seems to work. I think Noailles was on the west bank with the guns where he could order both wings of his army. However the troops intended for Aschaffenberg never actually got there. Simularly, the British and Hanovarian Guards were sent back toward Aschaffenberg as a rearguard, so were not involved in the action, for which they were later ridiculed by the Line troops!.

The river Main meanders in roughly a south easterly direction across modern Germany. The battle took place on part of the river that runs approximately north to south. The French batteries turned out to have very little effect on the battle. They were also masked by their own Cavalry.

Some time after the battle, Marshal Noailles told the French King, Louis the 15th that discipline in the army was collapsing. Given the defeats that the army had previously suffered along with the harsh natural conditions the army was operating in, it was understandable.

It would be down to Marshal Maurice de Saxe to restore French honour at Fontenoy.

It is interesting to note, that up to this point in time both Britain and France were not officially at war. Both were acting as auxiliaries to other Powers.

Fighting the Battle;

* On the 1st Game-Turn, the French move first and fire first and also have the Initiative Point.

* On Game-Turns, 2 to 8, the Pragmatic Army move and fires first and retains the Initiative Point. The Pragmatic Army also wins any ties.

* Any stands having to move into the river Main will be lost.

* The Ravine;
I'm not sure how much of an obstacle this was, but the fact that Gramont moved the army over the bridge illustrates how much of a problem it presented to movement.

Therefore, any stands moving into the ravine have to stop immediately. If, during " move back" a stand has to stop before the regulation spacing can be obtained, that stand is removed from play.


Most of the figures are Miniature Figurines 15mm with a mix of Peter Pig and Essex Miniatures. The wagons are from Peter Pig.
The houses are from Total Battle Miniatures. The trees are from various manufacturers.
The square stands are cut from picture framing cardboard, the round mdf bases at from Minibits.
The hills are scratchbuilt as are the bridges. The roads and rivers are cut from thin card. As before, the board is 3 feet x 2 feet ( 90cm x 60 cm ).

Friday, 12 November 2021

The 5th Century in Britannia, part 7: Arthurs Battles of the Dark Waters.

 This article is my personal interpretation as a wargamer, of events in this era. Any mistakes are my own.


* The Briton Army keeps the Initiative Point for the duration in every battle.

* The Briton Army moves first in every Game-Turn in every Battle.

* The Briton Army fires first where possible in every Game-Turn in every battle.

* Each battle will be played for eight Game-Turns, unless one side concedes before.

* In the first three battles, the rivers are shallow and do not impede movement and firing

* In the fourth battle the river Wharfe is more difficult therefore, stands must stop moving when they enter the river. Stands cannot fire whilst positioned in the river. They also suffer the combat penalty.

May 486 AD. After the second battle of the River Glyme, there was no time for the Britons to celebrate. Having received a message from King Einon of Gwynedd that Seaxons had crossed the Ouse at Eboricum. Arthurs army is marching north.

After eighteen days, the Briton army reaches Deva [ Chester ] which King Einon is using as his Capital. While the army prepares, 4,000 Saxons have been ravaging the area west of the River Ouse.

Arthur has 3,500 men with a further 800 men of the Gwynedd Militia. Einon has already lost a number of warriors trying to halt the Seaxon raids, but there has been no unified effort.

Arthur,s scouts locate the Seaxon host at Coccium [ Wigan ]. Therefore, his first destination was Condate [ Northwich ]. While in camp, Arthur is informed that the Seaxons are heading south-east laden with plunder and heading toward Manucium [ Manchester ].

As the morning progresses Arthur gives the orders. The army marches to the North of Manucium.  As the Saxon army spots the Briton army approaching, Bardulf and Colgrin order their warriors into a shieldwall. The Battle of the Dark Waters begin.


THE BRITON ARMY; 4,530 = 4.530 pts x 10 = 45 points r/d.

900 Veteran Infantry = 0.900 pts x 10 = 9 pts = 4 stands @ 2 pts + *1 General @ 1 point =9pts.

300 Light Infantry Archers = 0.300 pts x 10 = 3 pts = 3 stands@ 1 point = 3 points.

375 Elite Cavalry = 0.375 pts x 10 = 4 pts =  *Arthur @ 2 pts + 1 stand of Cav @ 2 pts = 4 pts.

280 Regular Light Cavalry = 0.280 pts x 10 = 2 stands @ 1 pt = = 2 points. 

1,500 Hwicce Infantry = 1.500 pts x 10 = 7 stands @ 2 pts each = 14 points.

150 Hwicce Light Infantry Archers = 0.150 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

225 Tribal Light Cavalry = 0.225 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

800 Gwynedd Militia =:0.800 pts x 10 = 3 stands of warriors @ 2pts each + 1 Lt Archers @ 1 point + *1 General @ 1 point = 8 points.

* Arthur.

* Medreut.

Cadwy  @ 1 point.

Owain @ 1 point.

* Cadwallon.

Rogatainus @ 1 point.

THE SAXON ARMY; 4,000 = 4.000 pts x 10 = 40 points.

Bardulf @ 1 point.

Colgrin @ 1 point.

4 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 4 points.

17 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 34 points.

Bardulf tells Colgrin the army must retreat eastward slowly and stay closed up.

Arthur tells Cadwy that he is to signal the attack. Once the army is assembled, Arthur has the horns sounded and Cadwy moves forward followed by Cadwallon and Rogatainus.

As the battle progresses the Seaxons start to retreat to the east. Arthur forbades any pursuit. The Seaxons are on the move for many hours through the night. Having reached the Old Teme river, they  have no time to rest before Arthur's army arrives.


THE BRITON ARMY; 3,800 = 3.800 pts x 10 = 38 points.

700 Veteran Infantry = 0.700 pts x 10 = 3 stands @ 2 points = 6 points.

200 Light infantry Archers = 0.200 pts x 10 = 2 stands @ 1 pt = 2 points.

350 Elite Cavalry = 0.350 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point. ( * Arthur @ 2 points.)

270 Regular Light Cavalry = 0.270 pts x 10 = 2 stands @ 1 point = 2 points.

1,200 Hwicce Infantry = 1.200 pts x 10 = 6 stands @ 2 pts = 12 points.

150 Hwicce Light Infantry Archers = 0.150 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

200 Tribal Light Cavalry = 0.200 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

600 Gwynedd Militia = 0.600 x 10 = 3  stands @ 2 points = 6 points.

* Arthur.

Medreut  @ 1 point.

Owain @ 1 point.

Cadwy  @ 1 point.

Cadwallon @ 1 point.

Rogatainus @ 1 point.

THE SAXON ARMY; 3,000 = 3.000 pts x 10 = 30 points.

Bardulf @ 1 point

Colgrin @ 1 point.

4 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 4 points.

12 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 24 points.

The Seaxons locked shields near the riverbank. The Teme is not very deep. As soon as Arthur has his army assembled, he signals the attack. The Briton infantry make a number of assaults while the cavalry harry the wings of the Saxon host.

Being tired, it is not long before the Saxons start to break. Once again Arthur stops any pursuit. His men are told to rest and eat. Medreut and Cadwallon have both been wounded.

The Seaxons have to move east, following the Roman road past the old fort of Camuludunum. Many of the warriors are exhausted, so Bardulf calls a halt on the east bank of the river Calder. At midday, Arthur's army appears again. Once more the Saxons lock shields on the bank of the river.


BRITON ARMY; 3,100 = 3.100 pts x 10 = 31 points.

600 Veteran Infantry = 0.600 pts x 10 = 3 stands @ 2 points = 6 points.

100 Light Infantry Archers = 0.100 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

300 Elite Cavalry = 0.300 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 3 points.

200 Regular Light Cavalry = 0.200 pts x 10 = 2 stands @  1 pt = 2 points.

700 Hwicce Infantry = 0.700 pts x 10 = 3 stands of  Infantry @ 2 pts + 1 stand  of skirmishes @ 1 pt = 7 pts.

120 Hwicce Light Infantry Archers = 0.120 x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

150 Tribal Light Cavalry = 0.150 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

500 Gwynedd Militia = 0.500 pts  x 10 = 2 stands of Warriors @ 2 points + 1 stand of Light Archers @ 1 pt = 5 pts.

Arthur @ 2 points.

Owain @ 1 point.

Cadwy  @ 1 point.

Rogatainus @ 1 point.

THE SAXON ARMY; 2,400 =2.400 pts x 10 = 24 points.

Bardulf @ 1 point.

Colgrin @ 1 point.

10 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 20 points.

2 stands of Light Archers @ 1 point = 2 points.

After  another hard fight, the Saxons are forced once again to retreat. Arthur issues the same instruction; No pursuit.

Continuing the retreat, Bardulf and Colgrin know that their warriors are close to collapse. The morale of the Briton Army is high and Arthur has their complete loyalty.

The last stand for the  Saxons takes place on the River Wharfe just north of Calcaria. Those that are left lock shields knowing that this could be their last battle. Away to the south is the ruined town that had been the first to be ravaged by the Seaxon army some weeks previous.

As before, Arthur's army appears from the west and advances toward the Saxon position. The cavalry ford the river Wharfe on either flank. As they engage the Seaxons, Arthur's infantry enter the fray.


THE BRITON ARMY; 2,500 = 2.500 pts x 10 = 25 points.

400 Veteran Infantry = 0.400 pts x 10 = 2 stands @ 2 points = 4 points.

90 Light Infantry Archers = 0.090 pts x 10 =1 stand @ 1 point.

250 Elite Cavalry = 0.250 pts x 10 = 1 stand @ 2 points.

150 Regular Light Cavalry = 0.150 pts x10  = 1 stand @ 1 point.

600 Hwicce Infantry= 0.600 x 10 =3 stands @ 2 points = 6 points.

100 Hwicce Light Infantry Archers = 0.100 x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point..

100 Tribal Light Cavalry = 0.100 x 10 = 1 stand @ 1 point.

300 Gwynedd Militia Infantry = 0.300 x 10 =3 stands @ 1 point = 3 points.

Arthur  @ 3 points.

Owain @1 point.

Cadwy @ 1 point.

Rogatainus @ 1 point.

THE SAXON ARMY; 1,800 = 1.800 pts x10 = 18 POINTS.

Bardulf @ 1 point.

Colgrin @ 1 point.

2 stands of Light Infantry Archers @ 1 point = 2 points.

7 stands of Warrior Infantry @ 2 points = 14 points.

This battle was the death knell of the Saxon army. Some gather to fight to the last, others collapse and cannot put up any resistance. Only a few make it back to Eboricum and into Linnius ( Lindsey). Arthur's victory is complete.

As he rides amongst his men,they clash their weapons and hail Arthur as " Imperator".

Historical Note:

Nennius tells us that Arthur fought a battle at the river Dubglas in the region of Linnius. many modern authors have interpreted this as the river Douglas and Linnius as the area of Lindsey north of the Humber estuary and east of the river Ouse.

While looking into this I read that 'DUBGLAS' means ' dark water '. Dark water is caused by minerals or extreme vegetation in a river. the Romans did a lot of mining in the Pennines and some of the area was heavily forested. which may well have turned some of the rivers dark.

It is roughly 84 miles between the river Douglas and Lindsey so why would Nennius mention the two places and one battle?. There are a number of rivers running roughly from north-west to south-east through the Pennines [ see main map above ].

 A Roman road [ number 712 on the Margary listing. ] runs along the route. My thinking is that the Saxons would have followed this in their retreat.

Is there a possibility Nennius made a slight mistake?Could he have meant ' The Dark Waters ' as many rivers rather than just one?.  If so, then , the description makes sense.

 Arthur fought a " running battle " against the Saxons across a number of river valleys  which eventually pushed them back across the Ouse into Linnius [ Lindsey ].

According to Google, it takes approximately 24 hours to walk from the river Douglas to York [ Eboricum ] so, splitting that 24 hours into 6 hour segments you could have a four day running battle.

I realise my methodology could be flawed, but, I hope my depiction of the situation sounds plausable.

Also, if the river TRENT and the OUSE marked the frontline or border of a reduced ROMANO-BRITISH Province as some historians have suggested, and Arthur,s battles were defensive in nature, then there is good reason for Arthur to be campaigning in the area.

This is battles 2,3,4 and 5 of Arthurs story.


The figures are mostly from Hat Industries 1/72nd range [ ' The GOTHS' and ROMAN MEDIUM INFANTRY.  Also ROMAN LIGHT CAVALRY ]. Some of the figures are Newline Designs metal 20mm figures.

Nearly all the standards are painted by myself as are the shields. Arthur,s main flag and standard are from transfers from Little Big Man Studios. The flag poles are made from the Spear and Javelin sets sold by Northstar Miniatures as are some of the weapons.

The shields on Arthurs infantry are from Magister Militum [ 10mm round shields ]

The waggons are scratch built and the oxen are from Caesar Miniatures Roman Train. The waggon loads are by Bauda.

Refighting the Battles;

  The numbers I thought might be available to Arthur is my own estimation bearing in mind that Arthur was not a native Royal or related directly to any major family group.His position as almost that of a Foederati Roman General. 

I used current immigration records to try and work out how many Jutes, Angles and Saxons might have crossed the channel and from that, how many warriors might have been available for military service. Slightly unethical I know but I used these numbers in conjunction with the information from Illka Sylvannes book about Arthur.

For the wargamer, this series of battles could be turned into a mini campaign.

The first battle could be played with all the figures available to the players. The next battles are played with the surviving figures of the previous battles.


The hill are a mixture of pre-made by Brian of Essex Miniatures and sections of garden kneeling pads purchased from Wilkinson,s. some of the woodland marker bases were made by S and A scenics. The trees are made by various manufacturers. the river and road were cut from thin cardboard. The bridge is scratchbuilt.

Arthurs fight is far from over, as more Seaxons are arriving on the east coast of Brittania. There is also also renewed raiding from the Dal and the Picts.


Sunday, 24 October 2021

Moving Waggons and Arcs of fire.

 When writing a set of instructions for Wargaming you like to think you have covered all the angles but it is very rarely the case.

Some waggon models are to long to put on a single stand. Therefore, the waggon has to go on one stand and a team of horses on another. The two must be in adjacent squares.

Here is an instruction should you wish to use it.

1) Move the horse stand in the direction of travel .

2) Move the waggon up to the adjacent square behind the horses. 

3) Reversing the direction of travel. Reverse the horse stand. Move the horse stand one square ( on top of the waggon), then a further square. Movement of the horse stand then stops.

4) The waggon is then reversed on the spot to match the direction of the horses.

5) On the next movement phase of the next Game-Turn the Waggon moves as normal.

All this sounds a bit convoluted but in real life if enough room was available you can turn a waggon team around but as with a car so with horses.

This is reflected in the fact that when the horse stand is reversed over the waggon. It can only be moved two squares instead of the normal four.

There must be two squares vacent for the horse's and wagons to move. If using this system, it stands to reason that without the horses in an adjacent square to the front, the waggon ( or gun ) cannot move!.

The above instruction allows for horse teams within the restricted space of a small wargame table. The same instruction could be used should you wish to use limber teams on a separate stand from artillery pieces.


A stand has a 90% arc of fire to its front. If there is an object, or a friendly stand in the adjacent square to the front the stand is blocked from firing even on the diagonal.

The above picture shows a confederate infantry stand unable to fire even on the diagonal because the adjacent front square has woodland in it.

The next picture shows the same confederate stand. This time, after movement, the stand has been left with an open space in the front adjacent square. This means that it can fire on the diagonal at the Union infantry within its 90% arc of fire

The facing of the stand is very important at the end of its intended move, and could leave the stand at a disadvantage if not attended to!

The waggon and team is Peter Pig. The figures are Peter Pig and Miniature Figurines. The Union gun and crew is Peter Pig.


Saturday, 23 October 2021

Battle of Dranesville; Fairfax County, December 20th 1861.

The details in this blog are my personal interpretation of  historical events. any mistakes are my own. Most of the detail I gained from Wikipedia. I had to do a bit of digging on the net for the regiments that were present but I cannot guarantee the accuracy of the list I have presented.
 This action was preceded by a reconnaissance and foraging operation from Centreville moving north, led by the Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart. At about the same time, General Ord of the Union army was moving his Corps east, along the south bank of the Potomac River to clear any Confederate forces from Loudon and Fairfax County.

Ord left half his Union force [ 5,000 ] at Colvin Run Mill so that he would not be outflanked. Neither force was aware of the other until both forces reached the area  south east of Dranesville. General Ords force, having driven off some Confederate cavalry piquets, was just resuming the march eastward when Jeb Stuarts force was encountered coming from the south.

UNION ARMY, 5,000 = 5 pts x 5 = 25 pts.

1 General and C-in-C [ Edward Otho Cresp Ord ] @ 1 point.
1 General [Lt Colonel Thomas Kane ] @ 1 point.

13th Pennsylvania Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2 pts = 4 pts.
6th Pennsylvania Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2 pts = 4 pts.
10th Pennsylvania Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2pts = 4 pts.
12th Pennsylvania Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2pts = 4 pts.
9th Pennsylvania Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2pts = 4 pts.
The Rearguard Infantry = 1 stand of 3rd class Skirmish Infantry @ 1 point.

1st Pennsylvania Cavalry = 1 stand of 3rd class Cavalry @ 1 point.
Battery A,  Hezekiah Easton. = 1 stand of Light Artillery @ 1 point.

CONFEDERATE ARMY, 3,800 = 3.8 pts x 5 = 19 pts.

1 General [ James Ewell Brown Stuart ] @ 1 point.

11th Virginia Infantry = 3 stands of 3rd class Line Inf @ 1 point = 3 pts.
1st Kentucky Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2 pts = 4 pts.
10th Alabama Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2 pts = 4 pts.
6th South Carolina Infantry = 2 stands of 2nd class Line Inf @ 2pts = 4pts.

1st Carolina Cavalry Company = 1 stand of Cavalry @ 1 point.
Company C, 2nd Virginia Cavalry = 1 stand of Cavalry @ 1 point.

Georgia Battery, Sumter Flying Artillery = 1 stand of Light Artillery @ 1 point.

Here are the opposing armies ready for battle;


 * You may wish to supply Dismount Markers for the Cavalry. If so, they have no points value, a basic die is rolled for the stand when firing or in combat.

* With regard to the Light Artillery, I dont know if these Batteries had the equipment to be true Horse Artillery given supply problems of the armies in the west. Therefore these guns can only move two squares in any direction.

* You can use the "Regimental" style movement I set out in a previous American Civil War blog or, if desired move the stands individually as normal. I have read that formations suffered from a lack of senior Officers which led to confusion within and between friendly units during a battle. More often it was down to the individual bravery of soldiers on both sides that would lead to the success or failure in battle.

The battle;

* The Confederates move first and fire first on the first Game-Turn.

* From Game-Turn 2 until Game-Turn 8, both sides will throw a die to determine who gets the Initiative Point for that Game-Turn.

* If you play this Game solo it’s best to stick with the basic 2-player Game-Turn sequence.

* As this battle is in the Western Theatre all ranges are for smoothbore weapons. Again I am basing this assumption on supply problems.

* The winner after eight Game-Turns, will be the side that suffers the lower casualties. Once both sides discovered each other, neither side was prepared to back down, although the Confederates did so after their waggons were safely away.

* If the Confederates loose the higher number of stands they can force a draw if they can get a waggon into Dranesville and back to the Confederate base line by the end of Game-Turn 8.

* As you can see in the battle set-up picture above, the waggons are off the road. The waggons can start their move from the first two squares at the Confederate base edge. The waggons cannot move through wooded areas.


The figures are a mix of mostly Miniature Figurines and Peter Pig with some Essex Miniatures. The waggons are Peter Pig.

The buildings are Peter Pig. The hills were made by Brian at Essex Miniatures. Two are home made.  Most of the wood 0utline bases are from S and A Scenics. The trees are from various manufacturers. The roads are made from thin cardboard.

The square figure stands are made from picture framing cardboard. The round mdf command stands are made by Minibits.

Friday, 17 September 2021

Battle of Campo Santo, Modena, North Eastern Italy, February 1743.

 This is my personal interpretation of events,  any inaccuracies are my own.

The information on this battle is a bit sparse, at least in the english language. The events took place during the War of the Austrian Succession. Having previously lost parts of Silesia to the Prussian King, Maria Theresa the Austrian Empress was casting around for redress and Italy caught her attention.

In the Regal "swopmeet" that took place after the Spanish Succession  war, the Spanish gained southern Italy. This area combined with the island of Sicily became known as " The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies". This  Kingdom was ruled by King Carlos the 3rd who happened to be the eldest son of Philip the 5th and Elizabeth Farnese of Spain.

Elizabeth also wanted a Kingdom for her younger son the Infante. The former Farnese territory of Palma and Piacenza were already controlled by Austria. Tuscany looked vulnerable as did parts of  Piedmont, tucked up in the North Western corner of the peninsular. Piedmont was already under pressure from France and in the end cast its lot with the Empress.

Charles Emmanual  of Piedmont was a soldier king much like Frederick of Prussia and a wily politician to boot. The French and Spanish monarchies had family as well as political ties but there was no strategic unity. The French government would not allow passage of the coastal route to Italy by any Spanish army.

Thus it was that the Spanish fleet in avoiding  English warships managed to get an army into Genoa.

The Duke of Modena, Ferdinand the 3rd D,Este also sided with Spain when the Austrians prematurely invaded the Duchy.

By 1743 the war in Italy was bogged down. The Spanish army under De Gages kept trying to cross the Panaro northward into Modena. Traun, the Austrian commander managed to stonewall the Spanish General each time.

Both Generals were under extreme pressure by their respective governments. De Gages had three days in which to achieve a victory or he would be sacked. Traun was under a similar threat.

Eventually De Gages was able to stymy the Austrian/Piedmontese army enough to get across the Panaro, using pontoon bridges close to the village of Campo Santo.


 I  could not find an exact composition of  the Austrian/Piedmontese army but fared better with the Spanish. There is still an element of guesswork involved.

The Spanish suffered from an almost complete lack of artillery in Italy, with the Austrians only doing slightly better. Remounts for the cavalry were also a problem and it was not unusual for the Spanish to have a regiment with an entire Squadron of  troopers dismounted. 

With desertion and sickness being another major problem, along with the harshness of the terrain, De Gages used a "rule of thumb" that each infantry battalion  held 350 men with 120 troopers in a squadron.


9,100 infantry = 9.1 x 3 = 27 points.

2,400 cavalry = 2.4 x 3 = 7 points

25 guns + 750 gunners = 0.750 x 3 = 2 points.

1 General [ Traun ] C-in-C  @ 2 points.

1 General [Schulenburg ]   @ 1 point.

4 stands of Grenzer Light Infantry @ 1 point =4 points.

1 stand of Grenadier Line Infantry @ 3 points.

4 stands of Austrian Line Infantry @ 2 points  = 8 points.

1 stand of Austrian Hussar Light cavalry @ 1 point.

2 stands of Cavalry @ 1 point = 2 points.

1 stand of Dragoon Cavalry  @ 1 point.

2 stands of Light Artillery @ 1 point = 2 points.


1 General [ Leutrum ] @ 1 point

1 General [ Aspremont ]  @ 1 point.

2 stands  of Dragoon Cavalry @ 1 point = 2 points.

1 stand of Vaudois Light Infantry Militia @  2 points

1 stand of Grenadier Line Infantry  @ 3 points

2 stands of Line Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.



11,550 Infantry = 11.550 pts x 3 = 35 points r/u.

1,440 Cavalry = 1.440 pts x 3 = 4 points r/d.

12 Guns + 360 gunners = 0.360 pts x 3 = 1 point.

1 General [ De Gages ]  C-in-C  @  1 point.

1 General [ De Atrisco ] @ 2 points.

1 General [ Beaufort ] @ 1 point.

1 General [ McDonald ] @ 1  point.

1 stand of Spanish Light Infantry @ 1 point.

2 stands of Walloon Line Infantry  @ 2 points = 4 points.

2 stands of Castile Line Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.

2 stands of Spanish Guard Infantry @ 3 points = 6 points.

2 stands of Irish Line Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.

2 stands of Neapolitan Swiss Guard Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.

2 stands of Genoese Line Infantry @ 2 points = 4 points.

1 stand of Modena Line Infantry @ 2 points.

1 stand of Neapolitan Light Infantry ( the famous Albanians. This was an elite unit. No deserters were allowed within its ranks.) @ 1 point.

3 stands of Spanish Cavalry @ 1 point = 3 points.

1 stand of Neapolitan Cavalry @ 1 point.

1 stand of Neapolitan Light Artillery @ 1 point.

Note. The Spanish regiments on the left were Provinciale troops. Although classed as Militia they were trained as the Line. Both Spain and Naples had single battalions of these troops. I have some stands of figures with  Modena and Genoese flags so these were put into the line as Provinciales!

Historical  Playing notes;

Traun had moved his army sideways  to the North-east to give him a  slight superiority on his left. both sides massed  their  cavalry on the Eastern flank. The cavalry of both sides fought their own private battle.

The Spanish cavalry although smaller in numbers managed to overrun the Austrian cavalry therefore any die thrown for a Cavalry stand in the Spanish army will have one additional point added.

Cavalry cannot engage in combat with any opposition infantry.

On the western side of the battlefield the Austrian Grenz Light troops never moved from the vineyard they were ensconced in. Apparently the Grenz managed to stop the advance of the Spanish left flank. Therefore, the vineyard counts as a trench, and the light troops are not allowed to move from that position unless forced by a “move-back” result.

The area was covered in irrigation ditches, therefore cavalry can only move three squares instead of four.

Neither the river Panaro  or the Canal can be crossed except at the pontoon bridges. The pond cannot be crossed by any stands. Any stands forced into the rivers will be counted as casualties.

The two Generals were completely opposite in their command style. Gages stayed where he was for the entire battle. Traun was everywhere and he had two horses shot from under him. Therefore De Gages cannot move from his position for the entire battle

The figure representing Traun can be moved anywhere. If Traun becomes a casualty, the figure is moved back two squares and reinstated.

Casualties in this battle were very high for both sides.

● The battle will last for eight Game-Turns.

● The Austrians get the Initiative Point and will move and fire first on the first Game-Turn. Thereafter, both side will dice to see who goes first and has the Initiative Point.

●The winner will be the side losing the least number of stands after 8 Game-Turns.

The figures are a mix of Miniature Figurines, Peter  Pig and Essex Miniatures. The buildings are all scratch-built as are the pontoon bridges.

The trees are from various manufactures. The field bases are from S and A Scenics. The road and river sections are made of thin card.

The square stands are made from picture framing cardboard. The round 40mm mdf bases were purchased from Minibits.

The flags were made from masking tape and hand painted.

Final Word;

The Genoese had  a red vertical cross on their flag which was the origin of the flag of England. Modena had a blue vertical cross. Both were on a white background.

Naples, had a large vertical Maltese style cross with the same symbol repeated in each quarter again on a white background.

Piedmont,s flag was a red circle with a white vertical cross imposed on it. This circle was imposed on a black eagle. This symbol sat on a blue background.